· Wierzbicki, T., Xue, L., and Hendry-Brogan, M. (2002). "Aircraft Impact Damage", The Towers Lost and Beyond - A collection of essays on the WTC by researchers at theMassachusetts Institute of Technology, Ed. Eduardo Kausel, pages 31-63.
"The external columns were impacted at a very high speed and the process is controlled mainly by local inertia. As the fuselage and wings cut through the steel facade of the Towers, the affected portions of the column sheared off. It was found that the momentum transfer between the airframe and the first barrier of external columns was responsible for most of the energy dissipated in this phase. The energy to shear off the column constituted only a small fraction of that energy."
· Wierzbicki, T., Teng, X.(2003). "How the airplane wing cut through the exterior columns of the World Trade Center", International Journal of Impact Engineering, Volume 28, Issue 6, Pages 601-625, 10.1016/S0734-743X(02)00106-9.
"Using the exact dynamic solution in the membrane deformation mode, the critical impact velocity to fracture the impacted flange was calculated to be 155 m/s for both flat and round impacting mass. Therefore, the wing would easily cut through the outer column."
· Omika, Y., Fukuzawa, E., Koshika, N., Morikawa, H., and Fukuda, R. (2005). ”Structural Responses of World Trade Center under Aircraft Attacks.” Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 131, No. 1, Pages 6–15, 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2005)131:1(6).
"Based on the results of the analysis using a detailed finite element model, the damage situation of each structural component around impacted stories and the destroyed components were evaluated. As a result, the damage situation of the outer wall of WTC1 and WTC2 and the velocity reduction curve of the aircraft for WTC2 showed good agreement with the actual phenomena."
· Karim, M. and Fatt, M. (2005). ”Impact of the Boeing 767 Aircraft into the World Trade Center.” Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Volume 131, Issue 10, Pages 1066–1072, 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9399(2005)131:10(1066).
"When the aircraft impacts the building at the top speed (240m/s) with a full fuel tank and the exterior columns have the original column thickness of 9.5mm., it is observed that all columns fail and the aircraft penetrates through the exterior wall. It was found that about 46% of the initial kinetic energy of the aircraft was used to damage columns. The minimum impact velocity of the aircraft to just penetrate the exterior columns would be 130m/s. It was also found that a Boeing 767 traveling at top speed would not penetrate exterior columns of the WTC if the columns were thicker than 20mm."
· Sadek, Fahim. (2005) "Federal Building and Fire Safety Investigation of the World Trade Center Disaster: Baseline Structural Performance and Aircraft Impact Damage Analysis of the World Trade Center Towers." (NIST NCSTAR 1-2).
"Figure 7-73 provides the results of a careful comparison between the observed and calculated damage (from the base case analysis) on the south wall of WTC 2. The comparison includes the mode, magnitude, and location of failure around the hole created by the aircraft impact. The comparison indicates that the overall agreement with the observed damage was very good."
· NIST NCSTAR 1-2A "Reference Structural Models and Baseline Performance Analysis of the World Trade Center Towers."
· NIST NCSTAR 1-2B "Analysis of Aircraft Impacts into the World Trade Center Towers (Chapters 1-8)", (Chapters 9-11), (Appendixes).
· Kirkpatrick, S., Bocchieri, R., MacNeill, R., Peterson, B., & Sadek, F. (2006). “Modeling Methodologies for Assessment of Aircraft Impact Damage to the World Trade Center Towers.” 9th International LS-DYNA Conference, Pages 53-68.
· Brachmann, Ingo. (2008) "On Efficient Modeling of High-velocity Fluid Solid Impact". (Doctoral Dissertation). Purdue University. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses No. 3373103
"The modeling technique used in this study was tested using data from tests of solids impacted by fluid (Chapter 2) and a concrete mass impacted by an F4 aircraft (Chapters 3 and 4). The results of the tests were all positive and provided the confidence to proceed on to the modeling of the WTC-1 building and the Boeing 767 aircraft. . . The cuts on the North facade of the WTC-1 seen in the photographs (Fig. 7.1 to 7.6) were similar to those determined by calculations for the two models of the impacting aircraft (Fig. 7.8). . . Calculations using the detailed model and the E-model provided satisfactory distributions of the damage observed on the damage to the north facade of WTC-1."
· Irfanoglu, A., & Hoffmann, C. M. (2008). "Engineering Perspective of the Collapse of WTC-I." Journal Of Performance Of Constructed Facilities, 22(1), 62-67. 10.1061/(ASCE)0887-3828(2008)22:1(62)
· Rosen, Paul, et al. (2008) "A high-quality high-fidelity visualization of the September 11 attack on the World Trade Center." Visualization and Computer Graphics, IEEE Transactions on, 14(4), 937-947. 10.1109/TVCG.2008.41
· Hoffmann, Christoph, Ahmed Sameh, and Ananth Grama. (2009) "Simulation and Validation of Structural Models."
· Irfanoglu, A. (2012). "Using Numerical Simulations and Engineering Reasoning under Uncertainty: Studying the Collapse of WTC-1." Computer-Aided Civil & Infrastructure Engineering, 27(1), 65-76. 10.1111/j.1467-8667.2010.00700.x
- Interpreting the Boeing-767 Deceleration During Impact with the WTC Tower By Dr. Gregory S. Jenkins, Ph.D. Physics
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